Een probleem van orde. Religie op de nationale veiligheidsagenda, drie voorbeelden van 1813 tot heden


  • Beatrice de Graaf Universiteit Leiden
  • George Harinck Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam



This paper highlights the relation between church/religion and the modern nation state from a security perspective. Rather than sticking to metaphors or models that frame this relation in dichotomous ways and advocate a stricter division of state and religion, we argue that it is much more helpful to use Foucault’s concept of governmentality to unpack the ways in which the two are interrelated. The notion of governmentalization, e.g. the rationalisation of governmental practice in the exercise of political sovereignty, enables us to identify the underlying values and norms in the framing of certain topics as security threat. By presenting three examples of the securitization of religion throughout the 19th, 20th and 21st century, we will demonstrate that church and religion are crucial markers in the process of centralization. Tendencies of governmental centralization, either propelled by external security threats or by internal state building processes, often went hand in glove with the framing of religious minorities as a problem of public order and/ or security.

Biografieën auteurs

Beatrice de Graaf, Universiteit Leiden

Beatrice de Graaf is als hoogleraar verbonden aan de Universiteit van Leiden met als leeropdracht conflict en veiligheid in historisch perspectief.

George Harinck, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam

George Harinck is hoogleraar geschiedenis van het neocalvinisme aan de faculteiten Godgeleerdheid en Letteren van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.





de Graaf, B., & Harinck, G. (2012). Een probleem van orde. Religie op de nationale veiligheidsagenda, drie voorbeelden van 1813 tot heden. Religie &Amp; Samenleving, 7(2), 141–165.



Received 2022-09-21
Published 2012-09-01